热度 13|
这个周末，到农家乐休闲一次。晨。
多年前，脑子出了点问题，在该想如何挣钱的时候，却总是在想世界的本源是什么？后来形成了我的一些物理观点，这就是晶体真空的物理假设。个人姑且认为这是一些有趣的看法，需要很多数学推导，但证明的途径是存在的。但鉴于忙于挣钱养家，自己数学太差，于是目前只是一些不成熟的想法。贴在这里，只是因为它很短。
几年前，我在想，我们识别语言，常常和图像联系在一起，常常和我们过去的经验联系在一起，为什么不让机器也这么做呢？在19-20年写了整整一年多，形成了我的一些中国专利和国际专利申请。这就是“如何step by step实现通用人工智能”的系列专利。我个人慎重认为这可能是目前全球唯一靠谱的通用人工智能的实现方案。无法贴在这里，因为它有143页，只能静待有缘之机缘。
So, what's the Higgs field? Why can it permeated in the Universe？If it exists in the whole universe, it must be an attribute of space, because we can't get rid of its impact. Obviously, we have to admit that the Higgs field is an absolute reference coordinate system.
In this paper, we propose a physical world composed of Higgs fields, which we call crystal vacuum. This paper puts forward the following assumptions:
1. In this paper, it is considered that vacuum is similar to crystal repeat structure. The core of each each repeating cell is a origin point.
2. Origin points are connected to another dimension (hereinafter referred to as the hidden dimension). All the origin points constitute the interface between our three-dimensional world and the hidden dimension world.
3. There is mutual coupling between elementary particles and origin points, which is the Higgs field.
In order to illustrate the concept of time, we first define the phase transition of elementary particles combination.
N elementary particles and their positions in the crystal vacuum constitute one of their phases. When they keep their overall relative position unchanged and move (translate or rotate) in the crystal vacuum, they are considered to have a displacement phase transition. When the relative position between them changes, it is considered that they have a diffusion phase transition.
Time is way to describe the observed phase transition sequence by comparing it with a reference phase transition sequence, such as pendulum motion, particle decay, pulsar rotation and any other convenient phase transition processes. The relative order of two sequence events constitutes the concept of time. So the essence of time is the arrangement of events.
We call a crystal cell containing a origin point as a Higgs cell. There is an interval with the lowest potential field between the origin point and the edge of the cell as figure 1. Usually, a elementary particle is bound in Higgs space. Therefore, the prerequisite for the phase transition of a elementary particle is to break away from the binding of the Higgs field. In other words, the probability that the elementary particle will break away from the binding of the Higgs field is the probability that the phase transition can occur. In the spherical space with radius x1, the origin point repels the elementary particles; Outside the spherical space with radius x1, the origin point attracts the elementary particles.
We use @p to represent the barrier depth of the Higgs field in a local space. The larger @p, the deeper barrier depth, mean the lower probability of phase transition of a elementary particle. We use Tj to express the probability of phase transition of elementary particles. Tj is related to the initial momentum of elementary particles and vacuum background noise.
Figure 1 Higgs filed
Here, we can also find the implication that the crystal vacuum proposed in this paper is an absolute reference system.
A flat space means that @p is equal everywhere.
If @p is not equal everywhere (a function of spatial position), we call it non-flat space.
A reference systems that move at a uniform speed relative to absolute space is called a inertial reference systems.
In a flat space (@p= C0, C0 is a constant), the Tj of the elementary particles is conserved because of the spatial symmetry.
There are vacuum fluctuations in crystal space. Vacuum fluctuation includes (1) historical background noise of the origin point interface. (2) The mutual coupling between elementary particles through the origin point interface.
The Tj of the elementary particle contains two components. One is the initial probability of the elementary particle, which is a vector, which we use Tjv to express. The other is the random probability caused by vacuum fluctuation, which is expressed by Tjn. Obviously, Tjn can also be expressed as Tjn0*exp(θ), where Tjn0 is the Tjn obtained during the observation period, θ is an arbitrary angle.
Obviously, when @p increases, the probability of each elementary particle breaking away from a Higgs cell is reduced. This mean Tjn decrease. The decrease of phase transition probability lead to the ability of elementary particles to move randomly is reduced. So Tjn is similar to the temperature T in the thermal motion equation in equilibrium, and they can be described by the similar equation.
The uncertainty property of motion of elementary particles comes from the statistical process and It can be expressed equivalently as the limitation from the transformation of the base coordinate system, such as a limited observation time resulting in a limited resolution.
If N elementary particles form a whole X, the probability of X displacement is the joint probability of N elementary particles. Obviously, when the number of N is large, the joint probability will become very small, resulting in the characteristics of macro matter. When N is small, the joint probability decreases exponentially. When N is large, the relationship between joint probability and N is close to linear, which comes from statistical mathematics. Therefore, the number N of elementary particles and their inertia after forming the whole X is not linear. When N is small, it is closer to the exponential curve.
Obviously, when @p increases, the probability of each elementary particle breaking away from the binding of Higgs cell decreases, and the phase transition probability of the whole X becomes lower. When compared with a same phase transition sequence of X under a smaller @p space, the rate of passage of time becomes slow.
The above relationship between Tjn and time is the possible reason for the wick transformation between the Schrodinger equation and the equation of thermal motion in quantum mechanics, as well as path integrals equation and the partition equation in Statistics: we can describe each jump of particles as a process in which the energy is distributed according to a certain distribution, or we can consider it is the superposition of a large number of phase transitions which have average energy with a random θ. The former is a statistical process and the latter is a wave equation.
If the Tjv of an elementary particle is large, even if the energy obtained by the elementary particle from the vacuum fluctuation is low, the elementary particle may shift in the direction of Tjv. This means that the probability of displacement of elementary particles in Tjv direction is high. Meanwhile, the elementary particles are displaced in the low energy state and enter a new Higgs potential well. At this time, the probability of high-energy random noise obtained by the elementary particle from the vacuum fluctuation is reduced, so it is equivalent to Tjn reduction.
If N elementary particles form a whole X, the probability of the same vector displacement of the N elementary particles is high, and the probability of random displacement between them decreases, which shows that the phase transition probability of X as the whole displacement increases, but the diffusion phase transition probability of X decreases. This is also equivalent to that X's other physical activities other than the overall displacement become slower, so we can say that the equivalent time of X becomes slower.
If an observer or a clock moves synchronously with X, based on the same principle, the time of the observer or the time of the clock will also slow down synchronously. So the physical law in the inertial system of the observer or clock will have the same form as that in the absolute reference system. This is the relationship between time and speed. It should be pointed out that the velocity here refers to the velocity of elementary particles in the absolute reference system (crystal vacuum), which is different from the current theory of relativity.
If a macroscopic object is taken as a whole, the displacement phase transition of the whole is determined by the joint probability of a large number of elementary particles. Because the randomness of a large number of elementary particles counteracts each other, the total randomness tends to zero. Therefore, with the increase of the number of elementary particles in joint motion, the randomness of the object decreases and shows the characteristics of macro matter.
In flat space, because spatial symmetry determines the conservation of statistical probability, macro objects will maintain their own motion state, which is inertia. In fact, this is exactly the original definition of inertia. Inertia comes from the conservation of statistical probability brought about by spatial symmetry.
In our vacuum hypothesis, the interface composed of origin points is the interface between our three-dimensional world and the hidden dimension. We assume that the source of the Higgs field potential well comes from the hidden dimension. When the local Higgs fields are coupled with the elementary particles, depth of their potential well decreases, and Higgs fields potential well near the interval will increase, so as to maintain the conservation of the total Higgs potential energy in our three-dimensional world. This leads to a gradient in @pin the space around elementary particles, which is gravity.
Therefore, we can also think that elementary particles are the source of gravity, and they are "gravitational charges". They change the attraction of the origin point to the elementary particles, resulting in a gravitational field. We can think that the origin of the elementary particle is polarized in the direction of the hidden dimension.
Similarly, if we take the charge as the source, we assume that it also polarizes the origin points in the three dimensions of our world and generates an electromagnetic potential in Higgs spaces, which constitutes the electromagnetic field. Electromagnetic field changes the electromagnetic potential of Higgs space through the polarization of origin point, and the change of electromagnetic potential of adjacent Higgs space will affect the polarization of origin point, so as to form electromagnetic wave.
We believe that both electromagnetic and gravitational waves propagate in a similar way because they are both polarization (vibration) of origin points. We believe that, in addition to our three-dimensional space, they will also propagate through the hidden dimension, so they have two propagation modes. One of them is defined as light or gravitational wave, and the other is quantum entanglement.
It should be pointed out that the polarization of charge of origin points are different in different @pspaces. The polarization is a function of @p. This is similar to the movement mode obtained by applying a vertical force to a compressed spring or a loose spring. In this way, we can very simply unify electromagnetic force and gravity, and there is interaction between them. This is different from the current physical theory. It is because the hidden dimension brings the bending of three-dimensional coordinates, which makes the transformation between matter and energy possible. We believe that the hidden dimension can produce and absorb matter, and release or absorb energy in the form of vibration of origin points in this process.
In our physical world, the space is discrete, and the minimum space is Higgs space. Space is composed of repeated arrangement similar to lattice structure. So there is natural truncation in our space. The gauge field appears by solving the interface constraints in Higgs spaces. Every time the elementary particle leaves the Higgs space (phase transition occurs), it can be considered that a vector from the origin point to the Higgs space interface is superimposed, and the end point of this vector is limited to the Higgs interface. For a vector whose size exceeds the surface of Higgs space, it can actually be the sum of multiple discrete vectors of the same size and at different times. It has the nature of natural truncation, so there will be no infinity here.
If the boundary constraints of Higgs space of lattice structure are considered, the gauge field will appear in the way of solving the boundary constraints. If we introduce non flat space, Higgs field and @p correlation in local space, gravity will enter gauge transformation in the way of solving constraints.
The coupling between elementary particles and Higgs space will absorb or dissipate energy, which is the source of quantization due to only particles with specific energy can getting a stable balance of energy exchange with the Higgs potential trap well. The energy absorbed or dissipated by the mutual coupling between elementary particles and Higgs spaces will propagate through the coupling between origin points in three-dimensional space. At the same time, this coupling will also propagate through the hidden dimension.
Similarly, for the coupling between charges and Higgs spaces, only charges with specific energy can reach a stable energy state with Higgs potential well. Similarly, the energy absorbed or dissipated by them will propagate through the coupling between the origin points in three-dimensional space. At the same time, this coupling will also propagate through the hidden dimension. Obviously, the definition of Higgs potential well here includes the Higgs potential well polarized by charge and polarization by mass, which is no longer the original definition.
Obviously, the Planck constant h, which represents quantization, is related to @p. Different @p will have different h, which is not a invariant constant.
The energy coupling through the hidden dimension is quantum entanglement. Quantum entanglement is that a system maintain its state through hidden dimensional coupling. The hidden dimension has no light speed limit. The components of the origin vibration in our three-dimensional world is light (obviously, the speed of light is @p related). Its component in the hidden dimension is related to the nature of the hidden dimension itself and will not be limited by the speed of light. We might as well call it "might".
In our crystal vacuum, gravity is generated by the gradient of @p. When @p increases, the barrier depth of Higgs space increases and Tjn decreases, which shows that the passage of time slows down.
In our crystal vacuum, when the object moves with velocity v relative to absolute space, the equivalent Tjn decreases due to Tjv. When Tjv is large, even if the energy obtained by elementary particles from the vacuum fluctuation is very low, elementary particles may shift in the direction of Tjv. It shows that the probability of displacement of elementary particles in Tjv direction is very high. In the total phase transition of elementary particles, the probability of phase transition other than Tjv decreases, which is equivalent to slowing down the passage of time. When an external force is applied to the object, finally, elementary particles constituting the object have a new Higgs potential well gradient. However, due to the reduction of the equivalent Tjn, which result in the passage of time becomes slow, the probability of phase transition other than Tjv decreases. Therefore, from the observation of absolute space, the inertia of the object increases.
In our physical world, the micro essence of both gravity and electromagnetic force is relative to @p gradient. The @p here contains @p polarization in the hidden dimension, which is a scalar field in three-dimensional space. It also includes the polarization of charge to the potential well in Higgs space, which is a vector field in three-dimensional space. The acceleration of the object due to the @p gradient (the number of phase transitions in the @p gradient direction increases) is the same process on the micro level, whether this gradient is generated by gravitational potential or electromagnetic potential. Therefore, gravitational mass and inertial mass are the same physical quantity described: magnitude of inertia. We can define a physical quantity "mass" to describe it.
When a large number of elementary particles is observed as a whole, from the calculation method of joint probability, we can find that when the number of particles is very small, the curve relationship corresponding to mass and number of particles is very drastic, which is an approximate exponential curve. When the number of particles is large, the relation of mass and number of particles is approximately linear. Therefore, from a macro point of view, we define the term “mass” to describe the difficulty of phase transition of a large number of elementary particles as a whole. This is the magnitude of inertia. Obviously, it is positively related to the number of elementary particles.
We assume that when a elementary particle is in a Higgs space, the potential well of the Higgs space is coupled with the elementary particle. It can not trap more elementary particles. This constitute the exclusivity of matter in space.
Multiple elementary particles can form a specific overall vibration mode through one or more Higgs space coupling, so as to form a balanced energy exchange with Higgs spaces, so as to maintain their own state. This is the cause of Pauli exclusion principle.
And we think that all bosons are some kinds of vibration of Higgs space.
In our physical world, the most basic parameter of space is @p . In different spaces, @p is different , and the rate of time passing is different. Tjn and @p are related, but @p is a definition relative to the absolute reference system while Tjn is a definition relative to arbitrary inertial reference coordinate system.
If we make Planck constant h as a local variable, we may use a unified form to describe the physical laws of different @p spaces. Because h has a direct relationship with @p and is the dependent variable of @p .
In our physical image, our world is three-dimensional, and there is an additional hidden dimension, without the position of time dimension. Therefore, time is a macroscopic parameter that we define it to describe the order of physical phase transitions. Therefore, in our physical world and history, there is no possibility of time travel. We can only change the rate of time passes.
In our physical world, boundary conditions are very important. If our world is a stable phase composed of countless phases superimposed in a certain order, the initial boundary conditions determine the evolution process of the world. Because we can calculate the steady state with a boundary conditions. If our world is not a stable phase, but there are boundaries, then our world will eventually enter a stable phase. This stable phase may be dynamic or static. Of course, perhaps there are no initial boundary conditions in our world in fact.
If the boundaries of our world are expanding and the Planck constant is not constant, we may mistakenly estimate the expansion rate, size and history of the world. She may be younger, tighter, more rational and more beautiful.
Considering the case of @p = 0, the Higgs trap is flat, there is no potential well, and the elementary particles will not stay in the Higgs space. Similarly, the elementary particles have no space occupation problem, so the matter does not have space occupation, and they can exist in the same space overlapped. In this way, the fermion becomes a boson, and the object will exist in the state of wave.
The trap of elementary particles and Higgs space constitutes a kind of potential energy. If @p changes from a real number to 0, this potential energy can be released. This may be cause of the E=MC^2.
Considering the case of @p= ∞, then time and space will be frozen.
Quantum entanglement can propagate on the hidden dimension. However, quantum entanglement is fragile states of combined particles and vibration of hidden dimension, which is easy to be disturbed by environmental noise. We need to extract and amplify the hidden dimensional vibration mode in order to achieve our goal.
In the following chapter, we set these proven physical laws as clues to speculate on some lines that our world is following.